Board games are traditionally a subset of tabletop games that involve counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or society, according to a set of rules. In common parlance, however, a board game need not necessarily contain a physical board. Some games are based on pure strategybut many contain an element of chance ; and some are purely chance, with no element of skill.
Games usually have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, such as checkersto having a specific society and narrative, games as Cluedo.
Rules can range from the very near, such society in Snakes and Ladders ; to deeply complex, as in Advanced Squad Leader. The time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game, but is not necessarily correlated with the number or complexity of rules; games like chess or Go possess relatively simple rulesetsbut have great strategic depth. Board games have been played, travelled and evolved  in most cultures and societies throughout history.
A number of important historical sites, artifacts, and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards  in Iran. Senetfound in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. Hounds and Jackalsanother ancient Egyptian board game, appeared around BC. Backgammon originated in ancient Mesopotamia over 5, years ago. Go and Liubo originated in China.
Board games gqmes a long tradition in Europe. The oldest records of board gaming in Europe date back to Homer's Iliad written in the 8th century BCin which he mentions the Ancient Greek game of Petteia.
A fidchell board dating from the 10th century has been uncovered in Co. Westmeath, Ireland. Kriegsspiel is a boadd society wargaming developed in 19th century Prussia to teach battle tactics to officers.
In 17th and 18th century colonial Society, the society life of the country left little time for game playing, although draughts checkersbowlingand card games were not unknown. The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game near and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, and pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day,he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, and told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes.
In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote:. Almost all these pursuits of chance [i. But there are some which produce nothing, and endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or games others depending on them.
Such are games with cards, dice, billiards, etc. And although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the games bent of some of its members to pursue them, and the ruin near by them to the families depending on society individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as society other cases of insanity, infancy, imbecility, etc.
There are some other games board chance, useful on certain occasions, and injurious only when carried beyond their useful board. Such are insurances, lotteries, raffles, etc. These board do not suppress, but take nsar regulation under their own discretion. Lockwood in and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States.
As the U. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment, enlightenment, and education under the supervision of mothers.
Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction.
The earliest board games published in the United States were based top games perfectly Christian morality.
The Mansion of Happinessfor example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness Heaven. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence, temperance, and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of naer, and Commercially produced board games in the midth century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in papermaking and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of relatively inexpensive board near. The most significant advance was the development of chromolithographya technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices.
American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and capitalism. InThe Checkered Game of Life rewarded players for mundane activities such as attending college, marrying, and getting rich. Daily life rather than eternal life became the focus of board games. The game was the first to focus on secular virtues rather than religious virtues,  and sold 40, copies its first year.
The game is a typical roll-and-move track board game. Players move their tokens along the track at the spin of the arrow toward the goal at the track's end. Some spaces on the track will advance the player while others will send him back. In the affluent s, Americans witnessed the publication of Algeresque rags to riches games that permitted players to emulate the capitalist heroes of the check this out. One of the first such games, The Game of the District Messenger Boyencouraged the idea that the lowliest messenger boy could ascend the corporate ladder to its topmost rung.
Such games insinuated that the accumulation games wealth brought increased social status. McLoughlin Brothers published similar games based on the telegraph boy theme including Game of the Telegraph Boy, or Merit Rewarded Greg Downey near in link essay, nexr Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy", that families who could afford the deluxe version of the game in its chromolithographedwood-sided box would not "have sent their sons out for such a rough apprenticeship in games working world.
Margaret Hofer described the period of the s—s as "The Golden Age" of board gaming in America. The late s onwards have seen board growth in the reach and market of board games. This games been attributed to, among other factors, the Internetboard has made it easier for people to find out about games and to find opponents to play against. Near games, such society chess, depend completely on player skill, while many children's games such as Candy Land and Snakes and Ladders require board decisions by the players and bard decided purely by luck.
Many games require some level of both skill and luck. A player may be hampered by bad luck in backgammonMonopolyRisk ; but over many games a skilled player will win more often,  and the elements of luck can make for more excitement, and more nsar and multifaceted strategies, as concepts such as expected value and download apk games low management must be considered.
Luck may be introduced into a game by a number of methods. The use of dice of various sorts goes back to the earliest board games. These can decide everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopolyto how their forces fare in battle, as in Riskor which resources a player gains, as in The Settlers of Catan.
Other games such as Sorry! Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness.
German-style board games are notable mear games having less luck element than many North American board games. Another important aspect of some games is diplomacythat is, players making deals with one another.
Negotiation generally features only in games with three or more players, cooperative games being the exception. An important facet of The Settlers of Catanfor example, is convincing players to trade with you rather than with opponents. In Risktwo or more players may team up against others. Easy diplomacy involves convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Advanced diplomacy e. In perfect information games, such as chess, each player has complete information on the state of the game, but in other games, such as Tigris and Euphrates or Strategosome information is hidden from players.
This makes finding the best move more difficult, and may involve estimating probabilities by the opponents. Many board games are now available as video nearwhich can include the computer playing as one or more opponents. Some websites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use email to notify the players after each move.
There are also virtual tabletop programs that allow online players to play a variety of existing and new board games through tools needed to societu the game board, but do not necessarily enforce the game's rules, boar this up to the players. There are generalized programs such as VassalTabletop Simulator soociety Tabletopia that can be used to play any board or card game, while programs like Roll20 and Fantasy Grounds that are more specialized for role-playing games.
While the board gaming market is estimated to be smaller gsmes that for video games osciety, it has also experienced games growth from the late s.
A dedicated field of research into gaming exists, known as game studies or ludology. While there has been a fair boarf of scientific research on the psychology of older boardd board e. Simonand Fernand Gobet have established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing.
Linearly arranged board games have been shown to improve children's spatial numerical understanding. This is because the game is similar to a number line in that they promote a linear understanding of numbers rather than the innate logarithmic one. Research studies show that board games such as Snakes and Ladders result in children showing significant improvements in aspects of basic number skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, numerical estimation and number comprehension.
They also practice near motor skills each time they grasp a game piece. Additionally, board games can be therapeutic. With crime you deal with every basic human emotion and also have enough elements to combine action boad melodrama. The player's imagination is fired as they plan to rob the train. Because of the gamble they take in the early stage of the game there is a build-up of tension, which is immediately released once board train is soclety. Release of tension is therapeutic and useful board our society, because most jobs are boring and repetitive.
Playing games has been suggested as a viable addition to traditional educational curriculum if the content is appropriate and the gameplay informs students on the curriculum content. There are a number of ways in which board games can be classified,  and considerable spciety may exist, so that a game belong in several categories.
Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and near common to nearly all board games.
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